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Old Young Lesbian. Mature Amateur. Old Young. Mature Teacher. Big Ass. Tight Pussy. Natural Boobs. Cum Swallowing. Conversely, there are also species in which there is no sexual specialization, and the same individuals both contain masculine and feminine reproductive organs, and they are called hermaphrodites.

This is very frequent in plants. Sexual reproduction first probably evolved about a billion years ago within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes.

Some of the many plausible theories include: that sex creates variation among offspring, sex helps in the spread of advantageous traits, that sex helps in the removal of disadvantageous traits, and that sex facilitates repair of germ-line DNA.

Sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes , organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria. In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes e.

Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.

The defining characteristic of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization.

Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, no third gamete type is known in multicellular plants or animals.

While the evolution of sex dates to the prokaryote or early eukaryote stage, [ citation needed ] the origin of chromosomal sex determination may have been fairly early in eukaryotes see evolution of anisogamy.

The ZW sex-determination system is shared by birds, some fish and some crustaceans. XY sex determination is used by most mammals, [13] but also some insects, [14] and plants Silene latifolia.

No genes are shared between the avian ZW and mammal XY chromosomes, [18] and from a comparison between chicken and human, the Z chromosome appeared similar to the autosomal chromosome 9 in human, rather than X or Y, suggesting that the ZW and XY sex-determination systems do not share an origin, but that the sex chromosomes are derived from autosomal chromosomes of the common ancestor of birds and mammals.

A paper from compared the chicken Z chromosome with platypus X chromosomes and suggested that the two systems are related.

Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms produce offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.

Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the offspring has half the chromosomes of the mother and half of the father.

This double-chromosome stage is called " diploid ", while the single-chromosome stage is " haploid ". Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells gametes that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis.

Crossing over and fertilization the recombining of single sets of chromosomes to make a new diploid result in the new organism containing a different set of genetic traits from either parent.

In many organisms, the haploid stage has been reduced to just gametes specialized to recombine and form a new diploid organism.

In plants the diploid organism produces haploid spores that undergo cell division to produce multicellular haploid organisms known as gametophytes that produce haploid gametes at maturity.

In either case, gametes may be externally similar, particularly in size isogamy , or may have evolved an asymmetry such that the gametes are different in size and other aspects anisogamy.

An individual that produces exclusively large gametes is female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes is male.

Most sexually reproducing animals spend their lives as diploid, with the haploid stage reduced to single-cell gametes.

These gametes combine to form embryos which develop into a new organism. The male gamete, a spermatozoon produced in vertebrates within the testes , is a small cell containing a single long flagellum which propels it.

They are specialized for motility, seeking out an egg cell and fusing with it in a process called fertilization. Female gametes are egg cells produced in vertebrates within the ovaries , large immobile cells that contain the nutrients and cellular components necessary for a developing embryo.

In mammals, the fertilized embryo instead develops within the female, receiving nutrition directly from its mother. Animals are usually mobile and seek out a partner of the opposite sex for mating.

Animals which live in the water can mate using external fertilization , where the eggs and sperm are released into and combine within the surrounding water.

In most birds, both excretion and reproduction is done through a single posterior opening, called the cloaca —male and female birds touch cloaca to transfer sperm, a process called "cloacal kissing".

In humans and other mammals this male organ is the penis , which enters the female reproductive tract called the vagina to achieve insemination —a process called sexual intercourse.

The penis contains a tube through which semen a fluid containing sperm travels. In female mammals the vagina connects with the uterus , an organ which directly supports the development of a fertilized embryo within a process called gestation.

Because of their motility, animal sexual behavior can involve coercive sex. Traumatic insemination , for example, is used by some insect species to inseminate females through a wound in the abdominal cavity—a process detrimental to the female's health.

Like animals, plants have specialized male and female gametes. The female gametes of seed plants are contained within ovules ; once fertilized by male gametes produced by pollen these form seeds which, like eggs, contain the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryonic plant.

Many plants have flowers and these are the sexual organs of those plants. Flowers are usually hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes.

The female parts, in the center of a flower, are the pistils , each unit consisting of a carpel , a style and a stigma. One or more of these reproductive units may be merged to form a single compound pistil.

Within the carpels are ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization. The male parts of the flower are the stamens : these consist of long filaments arranged between the pistil and the petals that produce pollen in anthers at their tips.

When a pollen grain lands upon the stigma on top of a carpel's style, it germinates to produce a pollen tube that grows down through the tissues of the style into the carpel, where it delivers male gamete nuclei to fertilize an ovule that eventually develops into a seed.

In pines and other conifers the sex organs are conifer cones and have male and female forms. The more familiar female cones are typically more durable, containing ovules within them.

Male cones are smaller and produce pollen which is transported by wind to land in female cones. As with flowers, seeds form within the female cone after pollination.

Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive methods for transporting pollen grains to other plants. Many plants, including conifers and grasses, produce lightweight pollen which is carried by wind to neighboring plants.

Other plants have heavier, sticky pollen that is specialized for transportation by animals. The plants attract these insects or larger animals such as humming birds and bats with nectar-containing flowers.

These animals transport the pollen as they move to other flowers, which also contain female reproductive organs, resulting in pollination.

Most fungi reproduce sexually, having both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles. These fungi are typically isogamous , lacking male and female specialization: haploid fungi grow into contact with each other and then fuse their cells.

In some of these cases, the fusion is asymmetric, and the cell which donates only a nucleus and not accompanying cellular material could arguably be considered "male".

Some fungi, including baker's yeast , have mating types that create a duality similar to male and female roles. Yeast with the same mating type will not fuse with each other to form diploid cells, only with yeast carrying the other mating type.

Many species of higher fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction. Within the mushroom diploid cells are formed, later dividing into haploid spores.

The height of the mushroom aids the dispersal of these sexually produced offspring. The most basic sexual system is one in which all organisms are hermaphrodites , producing both male and female gametes.

The biological cause for an organism developing into one sex or the other is called sex determination. The cause may be genetic or non-genetic.

Within animals and other organisms that have genetic sex determination systems, the determining factor may be the presence of a sex chromosome or other genetic differences.

In the majority of species with sex specialization, organisms are either male producing only male gametes or female producing only female gametes.

Exceptions are common—for example, the roundworm C. Sometimes an organism's development is intermediate between male and female, a condition called intersex.

Sometimes intersex individuals are called "hermaphrodite"; but, unlike biological hermaphrodites, intersex individuals are unusual cases and are not typically fertile in both male and female aspects.

In genetic sex-determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. Genetic sex-determination usually depends on asymmetrically inherited sex chromosomes which carry genetic features that influence development ; sex may be determined either by the presence of a sex chromosome or by how many the organism has.

Genetic sex-determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a ratio of male and female offspring.

Humans and other mammals have an XY sex-determination system : the Y chromosome carries factors responsible for triggering male development.

The "default sex," in the absence of a Y chromosome, is female-like. Thus, XX mammals are female and XY are male. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: the presence or absence of a Y chromosome which alone determines the individual's genetic sex , the type of gonads , the sex hormones , the internal reproductive anatomy such as the uterus in females , and the external genitalia.

XY sex determination is found in other organisms, including the common fruit fly and some plants. In birds, which have a ZW sex-determination system , the opposite is true: the W chromosome carries factors responsible for female development, and default development is male.

The majority of butterflies and moths also have a ZW sex-determination system. In both XY and ZW sex determination systems, the sex chromosome carrying the critical factors is often significantly smaller, carrying little more than the genes necessary for triggering the development of a given sex.

Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called X0 sex-determination —the 0 indicates the absence of the sex chromosome.

All other chromosomes in these organisms are diploid, but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes. In field crickets , for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop as male, while those with two develop as female.

Other insects, including honey bees and ants , use a haplodiploid sex-determination system. Tube XXXX Cooch TV DickPal Fresh Porn Clips Aged Lust HQ Boobs HQ Mature Pussy Tube Porn City Hot Voyeur Tube Fuck Fishing New Big Tube Spicy Big Tits Porn Tiki Tube Dessert Tube Spin TV Tuberr Big Boobs Film Porn Motors Tube Tube For Work Spectral Tube Zz Tube Lust Flesh Mature Tube Lust Sex With Mature Sex Tube Here Sex Pulse TV Prehistoric Tube The Mature Ladies Caramel BBW.

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Zoo Fun Forbidden Orgy Zoo 24 party Scat Porn Tube Taboo Fuck Net Fungi may also have more complex allelic mating systems, with sexes not accurately described as male, female, or hermaphroditic.

One of the basic properties of life is reproduction, the capacity to generate new individuals, and sex is an aspect of this process. Life has evolved from simple stages to more complex ones, and so have the reproduction mechanisms.

Initially the reproduction was a replicating process that consists in producing new individuals that contain the same genetic information as the original or parent individual.

This mode of reproduction is called asexual , and it is still used by many species, particularly unicellular, but it is also very common in multicellular organisms, including many of those with sexual reproduction.

As sexual reproduction developed by way of a long process of evolution, intermediates exist. Bacteria, for instance, reproduce asexually, but undergo a process by which a part of the genetic material of an individual donor is transferred to another recipient.

Disregarding intermediates, the basic distinction between asexual and sexual reproduction is the way in which the genetic material is processed.

Typically, prior to an asexual division, a cell duplicates its genetic information content, and then divides. This process of cell division is called mitosis.

In sexual reproduction, there are special kinds of cells that divide without prior duplication of its genetic material, in a process named meiosis.

The resulting cells are called gametes , and contain only half the genetic material of the parent cells. These gametes are the cells that are prepared for the sexual reproduction of the organism.

In complex organisms, the sex organs are the parts that are involved in the production and exchange of gametes in sexual reproduction.

Many species, both plants and animals, have sexual specialization, and their populations are divided into male and female individuals.

Conversely, there are also species in which there is no sexual specialization, and the same individuals both contain masculine and feminine reproductive organs, and they are called hermaphrodites.

This is very frequent in plants. Sexual reproduction first probably evolved about a billion years ago within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes. Some of the many plausible theories include: that sex creates variation among offspring, sex helps in the spread of advantageous traits, that sex helps in the removal of disadvantageous traits, and that sex facilitates repair of germ-line DNA.

Sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes , organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria.

In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes e. Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.

The defining characteristic of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization.

Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, no third gamete type is known in multicellular plants or animals.

While the evolution of sex dates to the prokaryote or early eukaryote stage, [ citation needed ] the origin of chromosomal sex determination may have been fairly early in eukaryotes see evolution of anisogamy.

The ZW sex-determination system is shared by birds, some fish and some crustaceans. XY sex determination is used by most mammals, [13] but also some insects, [14] and plants Silene latifolia.

No genes are shared between the avian ZW and mammal XY chromosomes, [18] and from a comparison between chicken and human, the Z chromosome appeared similar to the autosomal chromosome 9 in human, rather than X or Y, suggesting that the ZW and XY sex-determination systems do not share an origin, but that the sex chromosomes are derived from autosomal chromosomes of the common ancestor of birds and mammals.

A paper from compared the chicken Z chromosome with platypus X chromosomes and suggested that the two systems are related. Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms produce offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.

Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the offspring has half the chromosomes of the mother and half of the father.

This double-chromosome stage is called " diploid ", while the single-chromosome stage is " haploid ". Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells gametes that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis.

Crossing over and fertilization the recombining of single sets of chromosomes to make a new diploid result in the new organism containing a different set of genetic traits from either parent.

In many organisms, the haploid stage has been reduced to just gametes specialized to recombine and form a new diploid organism. In plants the diploid organism produces haploid spores that undergo cell division to produce multicellular haploid organisms known as gametophytes that produce haploid gametes at maturity.

In either case, gametes may be externally similar, particularly in size isogamy , or may have evolved an asymmetry such that the gametes are different in size and other aspects anisogamy.

An individual that produces exclusively large gametes is female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes is male.

Most sexually reproducing animals spend their lives as diploid, with the haploid stage reduced to single-cell gametes. These gametes combine to form embryos which develop into a new organism.

The male gamete, a spermatozoon produced in vertebrates within the testes , is a small cell containing a single long flagellum which propels it.

They are specialized for motility, seeking out an egg cell and fusing with it in a process called fertilization.

Female gametes are egg cells produced in vertebrates within the ovaries , large immobile cells that contain the nutrients and cellular components necessary for a developing embryo.

In mammals, the fertilized embryo instead develops within the female, receiving nutrition directly from its mother. Animals are usually mobile and seek out a partner of the opposite sex for mating.

Animals which live in the water can mate using external fertilization , where the eggs and sperm are released into and combine within the surrounding water.

In most birds, both excretion and reproduction is done through a single posterior opening, called the cloaca —male and female birds touch cloaca to transfer sperm, a process called "cloacal kissing".

In humans and other mammals this male organ is the penis , which enters the female reproductive tract called the vagina to achieve insemination —a process called sexual intercourse.

The penis contains a tube through which semen a fluid containing sperm travels. In female mammals the vagina connects with the uterus , an organ which directly supports the development of a fertilized embryo within a process called gestation.

Because of their motility, animal sexual behavior can involve coercive sex. Traumatic insemination , for example, is used by some insect species to inseminate females through a wound in the abdominal cavity—a process detrimental to the female's health.

Like animals, plants have specialized male and female gametes. The female gametes of seed plants are contained within ovules ; once fertilized by male gametes produced by pollen these form seeds which, like eggs, contain the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryonic plant.

Many plants have flowers and these are the sexual organs of those plants. Flowers are usually hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes.

The female parts, in the center of a flower, are the pistils , each unit consisting of a carpel , a style and a stigma. One or more of these reproductive units may be merged to form a single compound pistil.

Within the carpels are ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization. The male parts of the flower are the stamens : these consist of long filaments arranged between the pistil and the petals that produce pollen in anthers at their tips.

When a pollen grain lands upon the stigma on top of a carpel's style, it germinates to produce a pollen tube that grows down through the tissues of the style into the carpel, where it delivers male gamete nuclei to fertilize an ovule that eventually develops into a seed.

In pines and other conifers the sex organs are conifer cones and have male and female forms. The more familiar female cones are typically more durable, containing ovules within them.

Male cones are smaller and produce pollen which is transported by wind to land in female cones. As with flowers, seeds form within the female cone after pollination.

Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive methods for transporting pollen grains to other plants.

Many plants, including conifers and grasses, produce lightweight pollen which is carried by wind to neighboring plants. Other plants have heavier, sticky pollen that is specialized for transportation by animals.

The plants attract these insects or larger animals such as humming birds and bats with nectar-containing flowers.

These animals transport the pollen as they move to other flowers, which also contain female reproductive organs, resulting in pollination. Most fungi reproduce sexually, having both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles.

These fungi are typically isogamous , lacking male and female specialization: haploid fungi grow into contact with each other and then fuse their cells.

In some of these cases, the fusion is asymmetric, and the cell which donates only a nucleus and not accompanying cellular material could arguably be considered "male".

Some fungi, including baker's yeast , have mating types that create a duality similar to male and female roles.

Yeast with the same mating type will not fuse with each other to form diploid cells, only with yeast carrying the other mating type.

Many species of higher fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction. Within the mushroom diploid cells are formed, later dividing into haploid spores.

The height of the mushroom aids the dispersal of these sexually produced offspring. The most basic sexual system is one in which all organisms are hermaphrodites , producing both male and female gametes.

The biological cause for an organism developing into one sex or the other is called sex determination. The cause may be genetic or non-genetic.

Within animals and other organisms that have genetic sex determination systems, the determining factor may be the presence of a sex chromosome or other genetic differences.

In the majority of species with sex specialization, organisms are either male producing only male gametes or female producing only female gametes.

Exceptions are common—for example, the roundworm C. Sometimes an organism's development is intermediate between male and female, a condition called intersex.

Sometimes intersex individuals are called "hermaphrodite"; but, unlike biological hermaphrodites, intersex individuals are unusual cases and are not typically fertile in both male and female aspects.

In genetic sex-determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. Genetic sex-determination usually depends on asymmetrically inherited sex chromosomes which carry genetic features that influence development ; sex may be determined either by the presence of a sex chromosome or by how many the organism has.

Genetic sex-determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a ratio of male and female offspring.

Humans and other mammals have an XY sex-determination system : the Y chromosome carries factors responsible for triggering male development. The "default sex," in the absence of a Y chromosome, is female-like.

Thus, XX mammals are female and XY are male. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: the presence or absence of a Y chromosome which alone determines the individual's genetic sex , the type of gonads , the sex hormones , the internal reproductive anatomy such as the uterus in females , and the external genitalia.

XY sex determination is found in other organisms, including the common fruit fly and some plants. In birds, which have a ZW sex-determination system , the opposite is true: the W chromosome carries factors responsible for female development, and default development is male.

The majority of butterflies and moths also have a ZW sex-determination system. In both XY and ZW sex determination systems, the sex chromosome carrying the critical factors is often significantly smaller, carrying little more than the genes necessary for triggering the development of a given sex.

Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called X0 sex-determination —the 0 indicates the absence of the sex chromosome.

All other chromosomes in these organisms are diploid, but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes. In field crickets , for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop as male, while those with two develop as female.

Other insects, including honey bees and ants , use a haplodiploid sex-determination system. This sex-determination system results in highly biased sex ratios , as the sex of offspring is determined by fertilization rather than the assortment of chromosomes during meiosis.

For many species, sex is not determined by inherited traits, but instead by environmental factors experienced during development or later in life. Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination : the temperature embryos experience during their development determines the sex of the organism.

Many fish change sex over the course of their lifespan, a phenomenon called sequential hermaphroditism. In clownfish , smaller fish are male, and the dominant and largest fish in a group becomes female.

In many wrasses the opposite is true—most fish are initially female and become male when they reach a certain size.

Sequential hermaphrodites may produce both types of gametes over the course of their lifetime, but at any given point they are either female or male.

In some ferns the default sex is hermaphrodite, but ferns which grow in soil that has previously supported hermaphrodites are influenced by residual hormones to instead develop as male.

Many animals and some plants have differences between the male and female sexes in size and appearance, a phenomenon called sexual dimorphism.

Sex differences in humans include, generally, a larger size and more body hair in men; women have breasts, wider hips, and a higher body fat percentage.

In other species, the differences may be more extreme, such as differences in coloration or bodyweight. Sexual dimorphisms in animals are often associated with sexual selection —the competition between individuals of one sex to mate with the opposite sex.

In many cases the male of a species is larger than the female. Mammal species with extreme sexual size dimorphism tend to have highly polygynous mating systems—presumably due to selection for success in competition with other males—such as the elephant seals.

Other examples demonstrate that it is the preference of females that drive sexual dimorphism, such as in the case of the stalk-eyed fly.

Other animals, including most insects and many fish, have larger females. This may be associated with the cost of producing egg cells, which requires more nutrition than producing sperm—larger females are able to produce more eggs.

Some plant species also exhibit dimorphism in which the females are significantly larger than the males, such as in the moss Dicranum [48] and the liverwort Sphaerocarpos.

In birds, males often have a more colourful appearance and may have features like the long tail of male peacocks that would seem to put the organism at a disadvantage e.

One proposed explanation for this is the handicap principle. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about sex in sexually reproducing organisms.

For the act, see Sexual intercourse. For other uses, see Sex disambiguation. Specialization of organisms into male or female varieties.

Main article: Evolution of sexual reproduction. Different forms of anisogamy : A anisogamy of motile cells, B oogamy egg cell and sperm cell , C anisogamy of non-motile cells egg cell and spermatia.

Different forms of isogamy: A isogamy of motile cells , B isogamy of non-motile cells, C conjugation. Main article: Sexual reproduction.

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